Integrating Citations

Looking to vary the ways in which you cite your sources? Here are several ideas for integrating citations with sophistication and efficiency!

Now that you've done your research, it's time to cite your sources. We sampled several academic papers to show you a variety of ways you can integrate your sources into your own writing. Use these strategies to diversify your writing and show your readers how your sources contributed to your work!

Citation Structures:

Specific Citation Strategies:

You can use the structures provided above to cite and support all sorts of claims! Take a look at these examples of how you can use these strategies to help your reader understand the sources and how you are using them.

These are only a few of the ways you can use souces to provide support for your argument. Explore other papers in your field to get even more ideas on how to effectively integrate sources into your writing.

Heads Up:

How authors integrate sources into their writing varies from field to field. Make sure that you understand which citation style is most commonly used in your discipline! Are you writing for Geology or Microbiology, Musicology or History? Find a representative paper in your field and take a look at how the authors use and integrate citations. For example, Humanities articles tend to use direct quotations to integrate their sources, whereas science-based academic papers do not.

Marcotullio, P. J., Hughes, S., Sarzynski, A., Pincetl, S., Sanchez Peña, L., Romero-Lankao, P., Runfola, D. and Seto, K. C. (2014), Urbanization and the carbon cycle: Contributions from social science. Earth's Future, 2: 496–514. doi:10.1002/2014EF000257