Integrating Citations

Need to include references in your writing? Here are some ways to do it!

You've done your research and found sources that support your argument. Now it's time to let your readers know how these sources have contributed to your work! Here are a few of the basics for integrating citations into your writing:

Citation Structures:

Specific Citation Strategies:

You can use the structures provided above to cite and support all sorts of claims! Take a look at these examples of how you can use these strategies to help your reader understand the sources and how you are using them.

These are only a few of the ways you can use souces to provide support for your argument. Explore other papers in your field to get even more ideas on how to effectively integrate sources into your writing.

Heads Up:

Citation styles vary from field to field. You will want to make sure that you have a grasp for the citation style most commonly used in the discipline you’re writing in (for example, is it Geology or Microbiology, Musicology or History?). Find a representative paper in your field and take a look at how they use and integrate parenthetical citations. For example, Humanities articles tend to use direct quotations to integrate their sources whereas science-based academic papers do not.

Marcotullio, P. J., Hughes, S., Sarzynski, A., Pincetl, S., Sanchez Peña, L., Romero-Lankao, P., Runfola, D. and Seto, K. C. (2014), Urbanization and the carbon cycle: Contributions from social science. Earth's Future, 2: 496–514. doi:10.1002/2014EF000257