Integrating Citations

Looking to vary the ways in which you cite your sources? Here are several ideas for integrating citations with sophistication and efficiency!

Now that you've done your research, it's time to cite your sources. We sampled several academic papers to show you a variety of ways you can integrate your sources into your own writing. In these examples, we followed the APA style guidelines. Use these strategies to diversify your writing and show your readers how your sources contributed to your work!

Citation Structures:

Specific Citation Strategies:

Now that you know some different citation structures, let's look at a few citation strategies! Cited evidence can serve a wide range of purposes in academic papers. These examples will give you an idea of the different ways that you can use citations in your paper.

These are only a few of the ways you can use souces to provide support for your argument. To explore other papers in your field and get even more ideas on how to effectively integrate sources into your writing, try out our Reading for Writing activity!

Heads Up:

How authors integrate sources into their writing varies from field to field. Make sure that you understand which citation style is most commonly used in your discipline! Are you writing for Geology or Microbiology, Musicology or History? Find a representative paper in your field and take a look at how the authors use and integrate citations, or try our Reading for Writing activity. For example, Humanities articles tend to use direct quotations to integrate their sources, whereas science-based academic papers do not.

Marcotullio, P. J., Hughes, S., Sarzynski, A., Pincetl, S., Sanchez Peña, L., Romero-Lankao, P., Runfola, D. and Seto, K. C. (2014), Urbanization and the carbon cycle: Contributions from social science. Earth's Future, 2: 496–514. doi:10.1002/2014EF000257